1.       Answer: (A) Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of friction
This involves a problem solving approach, which addresses the root cause of the problem.

2.       Answer: (B) Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all times
Conflicts are beneficial because it surfaces out issues in the open and can be solved right away. Likewise, members of the team become more conscientious with their work when they are aware that other members of the team are watching them.

3.       Answer: (C) Avoidance
This strategy shuns discussing the issue head-on and prefers to postpone it to a later time. In effect the problem remains unsolved and both parties are in a lose-lose situation.

4.       Answer: (D) Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.
Reaching out and helping the staff is the most effective strategy in dealing with burn out. Knowing that someone is ready to help makes the staff feel important; hence her self-worth is enhanced.

5.       Answer: (D) Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.
Performance appraisal deal with both positive and negative performance; is not meant to be a fault-finding activity

6.       Answer: (C) Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.
The patient can be a source of information about the performance of the staff but it is never the best source. Directly observing the staff is the best source of information for personnel appraisal.

7.       Answer: (C) The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.
Collecting objective data systematically can not be achieved in an informal appraisal. It is focused on what actually happens in the natural work setting.

8.       Answer: (D) The session is private between the two members.
The session is private between the manager and the staff and remains to be so when the two parties do not divulge the information to others.

9.       Answer: (B) Consultative
A consultative manager is almost like a participative manager. The participative manager has complete trust and confidence in the subordinate, always uses the opinions and ideas of subordinates and communicates in all directions.

10.    Answer: (D) Unity of direction
Unity of direction is a management principle, not an element of an organizational structure.

11.    Answer: (A) Staffing
Staffing is a management function involving putting the best people to accomplish tasks and activities to attain the goals of the organization.

12.    Answer: (B) Record of related learning experience (RLE)
Record of RLE is not required for employment purposes but it is required for the nurse’s licensure examination.

13.    Answer: (B) Induction
This step in the recruitment process gives time for the staff to submit all the documentary requirements for employment.

14.    Answer: (B) Decentralized
Decentralized structures allow the staff to make decisions on matters pertaining to their practice and communicate in downward, upward, lateral and diagonal flow.

15.    Answer: (C) Rightmost box
The leftmost box is occupied by the highest authority while the lowest level worker occupies the rightmost box.

16.    Answer: (D) Promotes better interpersonal relationship
Decentralized structures allow the staff to solve decisions by themselves, involve them in decision making; hence they are always given opportunities to interact with one another.

17.    Answer: (B) Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nurses
This function is done in team nursing where the nurse is a member of a team that provides care for a group of patients.

18.    Answer: (B) Modular nursing
Modular nursing is a variant of team nursing. The difference lies in the fact that the members in modular nursing are paraprofessional workers.

19.    Answer: (B) Identify the values of the department
Identify the values of the department will set the guiding principles within which the department will operate its activities 

20.    Answer: (B) Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.
Structure standards include management system, facilities, equipment, materials needed to deliver care to patients. Rotation of duty is a management system.

21.    Answer: (A) Process
Process standards include care plans, nursing procedure to be done to address the needs of the patients.

22.    Answer: (D) Identify possible courses of action
This is a step in a quality control process and not a basic step in the control process.

23.    Answer: (B) Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing care
Criteria are specific characteristics used to measure the standard of care.

24.    Answer: (A) Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policies
Instructing the members involves a directing function.

25.    Answer: (C) Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.
This refers to an outcome standard, which is a result of the care that is rendered to the patient.

26.    Answer: (A) The things that were planned are done
Controlling is defined as seeing to it that what is planned is done.

27.    Answer: (A) Span of control
Span of control refers to the number of workers who report directly to a manager.

28.    Answer: (B) Initiate a group interaction
Initiate a group interaction will be an opportunity to discuss the problem in the open.

29.    Answer: (C) Age of patients
An extraneous variable is not the primary concern of the researcher but has an effect on the results of the study. Adult patients may be young, middle or late adult.

30.    Answer: (B) Sr. Callista Roy
Sr. Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model which involves the physiologic mode, self-concept mode, role function mode and dependence mode

31.    Answer: (C) Most accurate and valid method of data gathering
The most serious disadvantage of this method is accuracy and validity of information gathered

32.    Answer: (B) “Turnaround Time in Emergency Rooms”
The article is for pediatric patients and may not be relevant for adult patients.

33.    Answer: (C) Salary of nurses
Salary of staff nurses is not an indicator of patient satisfaction, hence need not be included as a variable in the study.

34.    Answer: (A) degree of agreement and disagreement
Likert scale is a 5-point summated scale used to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of the respondents to a statement in a study.

35.    Answer: (B) Reliability
Reliability is repeatability of the instrument; it can elicit the same responses even with varied administration of the instrument

36.    Answer: (A) Sensitivity
Sensitivity is an attribute of the instrument that allow the respondents to distinguish differences of the options where to choose from

37.    Answer: (A) Validity
Validity is ensuring that the instrument contains appropriate questions about the research topic

38.    Answer: (A) Random
Random sampling gives equal chance for all the elements in the population to be picked as part of the sample.

39.    Answer: (B) Ethnography
Ethnography is focused on patterns of behavior of selected people within a culture

40.    Answer: (B) Madeleine Leininger
Madeleine Leininger developed the theory on transcultural theory based on her observations on the behavior of selected people within a culture

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