Answers and Rationales for NCLEX-RN Practice Exam Part 4

View the NCLEX-RN Practice Test Part 4

1.      Answer B is correct. It is normal for the client to have a warm sensation when dye is injected. Answers A, C, and D indicate that the nurse believes that the hot feeling is abnormal, so they are incorrect.

2.      Answer D is correct. It is not necessary to wear gloves to take the vital signs of the client. If the client has active infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, gloves should be worn. The healthcare workers in answers A, B, and C indicate knowledge of infection control by their actions.

3.      Answer D is correct. During ECT, the client will have a grand mal seize. This indicates completion of the electroconvulsive therapy. Answers A, B, and C do not indicate that the ECT has been effective, so are incorrect.

4.      Answer A is correct. Infection with pinworms begins when the eggs are ingested or inhaled. The eggs hatch in the upper intestine and mature in 2–8 weeks. The females then mate and migrate out the anus, where they lay up to 17,000 eggs. This causes intense itching. The mother should be told to use a flashlight to examine the rectal area about 2–3 hours after the child is asleep. Placing clear tape on a tongue blade will allow the eggs to adhere to the tape. The specimen should then be brought in to be evaluated. There is no need to scrap the skin, collect a stool specimen, or bring a sample of hair, so answers B, C, and D are incorrect.

5.      Answer B is correct. Erterobiasis, or pinworms, is treated with Vermox (mebendazole) or Antiminth (pyrantel pamoate). The entire family should be treated to ensure that no eggs remain. Because a single treatment is usually sufficient, there is usually good compliance. The family should then be tested again in 2 weeks to ensure that no eggs remain. Answers A, C, and D are incorrect statements.

6.      Answer A is correct. The pregnant nurse should not be assigned to any client with radioactivity present. The client receiving linear accelerator therapy travels to the radium department for therapy. The radiation stays in the department, so the client is not radioactive. The clients in answers B, C, and D pose a risk to the pregnant nurse. These clients are radioactive in very small doses, especially upon returning from the procedures. For approximately 72 hours, the clients should dispose of urine and feces in special containers and use plastic spoons and forks.

7.      Answer A is correct. The client with Cushing’s disease has adrenocortical hypersecretion. This increase in the level of cortisone causes the client to be immune suppressed. In answer B, the client with diabetes poses no risk to other clients. The client in answer C has an increase in growth hormone and poses no risk to himself or others. The client in answer D has hyperthyroidism or myxedema and poses no risk to others or himself.

8.      Answer D is correct. The nurse could be charged with malpractice, which is failing to perform, or performing an act that causes harm to the client. Giving the infant an overdose falls into this category. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because they apply to other wrongful acts. Negligence is failing to perform care for the client; a tort is a wrongful act committed on the client or their belongings; and assault is a violent physical or verbal attack.

9.      Answer D is correct. The licensed practical nurse should not be assigned to begin a blood transfusion. The licensed practical nurse can insert a Foley catheter, discontinue a nasogastric tube, and collect sputum specimen; therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.

10.  Answer B is correct. The vital signs are abnormal and should be reported immediately. Continuing to monitor the vital signs can result in deterioration of the client’s condition, making answer A incorrect. Asking the client how he feels in answer C will only provide subjective data, and the nurse in answer D is not the best nurse to assign because this client is unstable.

11.  Answer B is correct. The nurse with 3 years of experience in labor and delivery knows the most about possible complications involving preeclampsia. The nurse in answer A is a new nurse to the unit, and the nurses in answers C and D have no experience with the postpartum client.

12.  Answer B is correct. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals will probably be interested in the problems in answers A and C. The failure of the nursing assistant to care for the client with hepatitis might result in termination, but is not of interest to the Joint Commission.

13.  Answer B is correct. The next action after discussing the problem with the nurse is to document the incident by filing a formal reprimand. If the behavior continues or if harm has resulted to the client, the nurse may be terminated and reported to the Board of Nursing, but these are not the first actions requested in the stem. A tort is a wrongful act to the client or his belongings and is not indicated in this instance. Therefore, Answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

14.  Answer D is correct. The client at highest risk for complications is the client with multiple sclerosis who is being treated with cortisone via the central line. The others are more stable. MRSA is methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin is the drug of choice and is given at scheduled times to maintain blood levels of the drug. The clients in answers A, B, and C are more stable and can be seen later.

15.  Answer B is correct. The pregnant client and the client with a broken arm and facial lacerations are the best choices for placing in the same room. The clients in answers A, C, and D need to be placed in separate rooms due to the serious natures of their injuries.

16.  Answer A is correct. Before instilling eyedrops, the nurse should cleanse the area with water. A 6-year-old child is not developmentally ready to instill his own eyedrops, so answer B is incorrect. Although the mother of the child can instill the eyedrops, the area must be cleansed before administration, making answer C incorrect. Although the eye might appear to be clear, the nurse should instill the eyedrops, as ordered, so answer D is incorrect.

17.  Answer C is correct. Remember the ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation) when answering this question. Answer C is correct because a hotdog is the size and shape of the child’s trachea and poses a risk of aspiration. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because white grape juice, a grilled cheese sandwich, and ice cream do not pose a risk of aspiration for a child.

18.  Answer C is correct. The nurse should encourage rooming-in to promote parent-child attachment. It is okay for the parents to be in the room for assessment of the child. Allowing the child to have items that are familiar to him is allowed and encouraged; therefore, answers A and B are incorrect. Answer D is not part of the nurse’s responsibilities.

19.  Answer B is correct. The hearing aid should be stored in a warm, dry place. It should be cleaned daily but should not be moldy, so answer A is incorrect. A toothpick is inappropriate to use to clean the aid; the toothpick might break off in the hearing aide, making answer C incorrect. Changing the batteries weekly, as in answer D, is not necessary.

20.  Answer C is correct. Always remember your ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation) when selecting an answer. Although answers B and D might be appropriate for this child, answer C should have the highest priority. Answer A does not apply for a child who has undergone a tonsillectomy.

21.  Answer A is correct. If the child has bacterial pneumonia, a high fever is usually present. Bacterial pneumonia usually presents with a productive cough, not a nonproductive cough, making answer B incorrect. Rhinitis is often seen with viral pneumonia, and vomiting and diarrhea are usually not seen with pneumonia, so answers C and D are incorrect.

22.  Answer B is correct. For a child with epiglottis and the possibility of complete obstruction of the airway, emergency tracheostomy equipment should always be kept at the bedside. Intravenous supplies, fluid, and oxygen will not treat an obstruction; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.

23.  Answer C is correct. Exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs) often occurs with hyperthyroidism. The client with hyperthyroidism will often exhibit tachycardia, increased appetite, and weight loss; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.

24.  Answer D is correct. The child with celiac disease should be on a gluten-free diet. Answers A, B, and C all contain gluten, while answer D gives the only choice of foods that does not contain gluten.

25.  Answer C is correct. Remember the ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation) when answering this question. Before notifying the physician or assessing the pulse, oxygen should be applied to increase the oxygen saturation, so answers A and D are incorrect. The normal oxygen saturation for a child is 92%–100%, making answer B incorrect.

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