1. C. The ointment is placed in the lower conjunctival sac so it will not scratch the eye itself and will get well distributed.
2. D. The physician, nurse, and pharmacist all are licensed professionals and share responsibility for errors.
3. B. The decreased circulation to the kidney and reduced liver function tend to allow drugs to accumulate and have toxic effects.
4. C. The correct way to identify a patient before giving a medication is to check the name on the medication administration record with the patient’s identification band. The nurse should also ask the patient to state their name. The name on the door or the census list are not sufficient proof of identification. Calling the patient by name is not as effective as having the patient state their name; patients may not hear well or understand what the nurse is saying, and may respond to a name which is not their own.
5. C. Frequently patients do not complete an entire course of antibiotic therapy, and the bacteria are not destroyed.
6. B. Elavil is an antidepressant that lowers the seizure threshold, so would not be appropriate for this patient. The other medications are anti-seizure drugs.
7. C. Morphine sulfate depresses the respiratory center. When the rate is less than 10, the MD should be notified.
8. A. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors react with foods high in the amino acid tyramine to cause dangerously high blood pressure. Aged cheeses are all high in this amino acid; the other foods are not.
9. C. The generic name for Demerol is meperidine.
10. C. The five rights of medication administration are right drug, right dose, right route, right time, right patient. Frequency is not included.
11. C. The nurse should always inspect the vial of insulin before use for solution changes that may signify loss of potency. NPH insulin is normally uniformly cloudy. Clumping, frosting, and precipitates are signs of insulin damage. In this situation, because potency is questionable, it is safer to discard the vial and draw up the dose from a new vial.
12. C. The client should be taught that ketoconazole is an antifungal medication. It should be taken with food or milk. Antacids should be avoided for 2 hours after it is taken because gastric acid is needed to activate the medication. The client should avoid concurrent use of alcohol, because the medication is hepatotoxic. The client should also avoid exposure to sunlight, because the medication increases photosensitivity.
13. B. Cola, coffee, and chocolate contain xanthine and should be avoided by the client taking a xanthine bronchodilator. This could lead to an increased incidence of cardiovascular and central nervous system side effects that can occur with the use of these types of bronchodilators.
14. C. The client is taking famotidine, a histamine receptor antagonist. This implies that the client has a disorder characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) irritation. The only medication of the ones listed in the options that is not irritating to the GI tract is acetaminophen. The other medications could aggravate an already existing GI problem.
15. D. Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic, and clients taking this medication should be cautioned against eating foods that are high in potassium, including many vegetables, fruits, and fresh meats. Because potassium is very water-soluble, foods that are prepared in water are often lower in potassium.
16. A. The client with cirrhosis has impaired ability to metabolize protein because of liver dysfunction. Administration of lactulose aids in the clearance of ammonia via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ethacrynic acid is a diuretic. Folic acid and thiamine are vitamins, which may be used in clients with liver disease as supplemental therapy.
17. A. Glycerin is an emollient that is used for dry, cracked, and irritated skin. Aspercreame and Myoflex are used to treat muscular aches. Acetic acid solution is used for irrigating, cleansing, and packing wounds infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
18. B. Accupril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of hypertension. The client should be instructed to rise slowly from a lying to sitting position and to permit the legs to dangle from the bed momentarily before standing to reduce the hypotensive effect. The medication does not need to be taken with meals. It may be given without regard to food. If nausea occurs, the client should be instructed to take a noncola carbonated beverage and salted crackers or dry toast. A full therapeutic effect may be noted in 1 to 2 weeks.
19. D. Auranofin (Ridaura) is a gold preparation that is used as an antirheumatic. Gold toxicity is an adverse effect and is evidenced by decreased hemoglobin, leukopenia, reduced granulocyte counts, proteinuria, hematuria, stomatitis, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or cholestatic jaundice. Anorexia, nausea, and diarrhea are frequent side effects of the medication.
20. B. Benzonatate is a locally acting antitussive. Its effectiveness is measured by the degree to which it decreases the intensity and frequency of cough, without eliminating the cough reflex.