1. Answer C. Monitor serum glucose levels. Hyperglycemia may occur during the first day or 2 as the child adapts to the high-glucose load of the TPN solution. Thus, a chief nursing responsibility is blood glucose testing. 2. Answer D. Total parenteral nutrition formulas contain dextrose in concentrations of 10% or greater to supply 20% to 50% of the total calories. Blood glucose levels should be checked every 4 to 6 hours. A sliding scale dose of insulin may be ordered to maintain the blood glucose level below 200mg/dl. 3. Answer C. Intravenous gamma globulin is given to help prevent as well as to fight bacterial infections in young children with AIDS. 4. Answer C. Clients receiving TPN are very susceptible to infection. The concentrated glucose solutions are a good medium for bacterial growth. Strict sterile technique is crucial in preventing infection at IV infusion site. 5. Answer C. A vesicant is a chemotherapeutic agent capable of causing blistering of tissues and possible tissue necrosis if there is extravasation. These agents are irritants which cause pain along the vein wall, with or without inflammation. 6. Answer A. Foods high in tryptophan, tyramine and caffeine, such as chocolate and cheese may precipitate hypertensive crisis. 7. Answer C. This is the most therapeutic response and gives the client accurate information. 8. Answer B. Chorea is the restless and sudden aimless and irregular movements of the extremities suddenly seen in persons with rheumatic fever, especially girls. Polyarthritis is characterized by swollen, painful, hot joints that respond to salicylates. Subcutaneous nodules are nontender swellings over bony prominences sometimes seen in persons with rheumatic fever. Erythema marginatum is a skin condition characterized by nonpruritic rash, affecting trunk and proximal extremities, seen in persons with rheumatic fever. 9. Answer A. Clients going to the operating room ideally should have an 18- gauge catheter. This is large enough to handle blood products safely and to allow rapid administration of large amounts of fluid if indicated during the perioperative period. An 18-gauge catheter is recommended. A 20-gauge catheter is a second choice. A 21-gauge needle is too small and a butterfly too unstable for a client going to surgery. A 25-gauge needle is too small. 10. Answer C. Gold sodium thiomalate is usually used in combination with aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain. Gold has an immunosuppressive affect. Azathioprine is used for clients with life-threatening rheumatoid arthritis for its immunosuppressive effects. Prednisone is used to treat persons with acute exacerbations of rheumatoid arthritis. This medication is given for its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Immunosuppression does not occur. 11. Answer D. The impact of lithium on the client’s energy level and life style are great determinants to compliance. The frequent blood level monitoring required is difficult for clients to follow for a long period of time. Potential side effects such as fine tremor, drowsiness, diarrhea, polyuria, thirst, weight gain, and fatigue can be disturbing to the client. While the client’s social network can influence the client in terms of compliance, the influence is typically secondary to that of the other factors listed. 12. Answer D. The impact of lithium on the client’s energy level and life style are great determinants to compliance. The frequent blood level monitoring required is difficult for clients to follow for a long period of time. Potential side effects such as fine tremor, drowsiness, diarrhea, polyuria, thirst, weight gain, and fatigue can be disturbing to the client. While the client’s social network can influence the client in terms of compliance, the influence is typically secondary to that of the other factors listed. 13. Answer A. Drugs commonly used by elderly people, especially in combination, can lead to dementia. Assessment of the medication taken may or may not provide information on the client’s medical background. However, this is not the primary reason for assessing medications in a client who is exhibiting sundown syndrome. Ability to recall medications may indicate short-term memory and recall. However, that is not the primary reason for assessing medications in a client with sundown syndrome. Medication history should be a part of the nursing assessment. In this client there is an even more important reason for evaluating the medications taken. 14. Answer B. The client starts to need increased insulin in the second trimester. This statement indicates a lack of understanding. As a result of placental maturation and placental production of lactogen, insulin requirements begin increasing in the second trimester and may double or quadruple by the end of pregnancy. The client starts to need increased insulin in the second trimester. This statement indicates a lack of understanding. Insulin doses depend on blood glucose levels. Finger sticks for glucose levels must be continued. 15. Answer B. The nurse should be aware that tetracyclines decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. The physician should be notified. The physician should be notified. Tetracycline decreases the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. There may be an equally effective antibiotic available that can be prescribed. Note on the client’s chart that the physician was notified. The nurse should be aware that tetracyclines decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. The nurse should not tell the client to stop taking oral contraceptives unless the physician orders this. The nurse should be aware that tetracyclines decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. If the physician chooses to keep the client on tetracycline, the client should be encouraged to use another form of birth control. The first intervention is to notify the physician. 16. Answer B. The first insulin peak will occur two to four hours after administration of regular insulin. Regular insulin is classified as rapid acting and will peak two to four hours after administration. The second peak will be eight to twelve hours after the administration of NPH insulin. This is why a snack must be eaten mid-morning and also three to four hours after the evening meal. The first insulin peak will occur two to four hours after administration of regular insulin. The first insulin peak will occur two to four hours after administration of regular insulin. The second peak will occur eight to twelve hours after the administration of NPH insulin. 17. Answer A. Mafenide acetate 10% (Sulfamylon) does cause burning on application. An analgesic may be required before the ointment is applied. Mafenide acetate 10% (Sulfamylon) is a strong carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that affects the renal tubular buffering system, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Mafenide acetate 10% (Sulfamylon) does not cause discoloration. Silver nitrate solution, another topical antibiotic used to treat burn sepsis, has the disadvantage of turning everything it touches black. Mafenide acetate 10% (Sulfamylon) is an ointment that is applied directly to the wound. It has the ability to diffuse rapidly through the eschar. The wound may be left open or dry dressing may be applied. Silver nitrate solution is applied by soaking the wound dressings and keeping them constantly wet, which may cause chilling and hypotension. 18. Answer. Doses of over 30 mg/day may increase the risk of agranulocytosis. Lugol’s solution does not act to prevent tetany. Calcium is used to treat tetany. The client may receive iodine solution (Lugol’s solution) for 10 to 14 days before surgery to decrease vascularity of the thyroid and thus prevent excess bleeding. Lugol’s solution does not potentiate any other preoperative medication. 19. Answer D. Bradypnea (slow breathing) is not associated with digitalis toxicity. Bradycardia is associated with digitalis toxicity. Although children with congestive heart failure often have a related condition of failure to thrive, it is not directly related to digitalis administration. It is more related to chronic hypoxia. Tachycardia is not a sign of digitalis toxicity. Bradycardia is a sign of digitalis toxicity. The earliest sign of digitalis toxicity is vomiting, although one episode does not warrant discontinuing medication. 20. Answer A. Hydrocortisone promotes gluconeogenesis and elevates blood glucose levels. Following adrenalectomy the normal supply of hydrocortisone is interrupted and must be replaced to maintain the blood glucose at normal levels. Care for the client following adrenalectomy is similar to that for any abdominal operation. The client is encouraged to change position, cough, and deep breathe to prevent postoperative complications such as pneumonia or thrombophlebitis. Maintenance doses of hydrocortisone will be administered IV until the client is able to take it by mouth and will be necessary for six months to two years or until the remaining gland recovers. The client undergoing an adrenalectomy is at increased risk for infection and delayed wound healing and will need to learn about wound care, but not at this time while he is in the ICU.