1. Answer A. Endometritis is an infection of the uterine lining and can occur after prolonged rupture of membranes. Endometriosis does not occur after a strong labor and prolonged rupture of membranes. Salpingitis is a tubal infection and could occur if endometritis is not treated. Pelvic thrombophlebitis involves a clot formation but it is not a complication of prolonged rupture of membranes.
2. Answer B. Before amniocentesis, a routine ultrasound is valuable in locating the placenta, locating a pool of amniotic fluid, and showing the physician where to insert the needle. Color Doppler imaging ultrasonography identifies blood flow through the umbilical cord. A routine ultrasound does not accomplish this.
3. Answer B. Protamine sulfate is a heparin antagonist given intravenously to counteract bleeding complications cause by heparin overdose.
4. Answer D. While caring for an infant receiving phototherapy for treatment of jaundice, vital signs are checked every 2 to 4 hours because hyperthermia can occur due to the phototherapy lights.
5. Answer D. A bilateral pudental block is used for vaginal deliveries to relieve pain primarily in the perineum and vagina. Pudental block anesthesia is adequate for episiotomy and its repair.
6. Answer A. Eating dry crackers before arising can assist in decreasing the common discomfort of nausea and vomiting. Avoiding strong food odors and eating a high-protein snack before bedtime can also help.
7. Answer C. Beginning after completion of the taking-in phase, the taking-hold phase lasts about 10 days. During this phase, the client is concerned with her need to resume control of all facets of her life in a competent manner. At this time, she is ready to learn self-care and infant care skills.
8. Answer A. Treatment of partial placenta previa includes bed rest, hydration, and careful monitoring of the client’s bleeding.
9. Answer C. Prevention of breast engorgement is key. The best technique is to empty the breast regularly with feeding. Engorgement is less likely when the mother and neonate are together, as in single room maternity care continuous rooming in, because nursing can be done conveniently to meet the neonate’s and mother’s needs.
10. Answer A. The Moro, or startle, reflex occurs when the neonate responds to stimuli by extending the arms, hands open, and then moving the arms in an embracing motion. The Moro reflex, present at birth, disappears at about age 3 months.
11. Answer A. Tailor sitting is an excellent exercise that helps to strengthen the client’s back muscles and also prepares the client for the process of labor. The client should be encouraged to rest periodically during the day and avoid standing or sitting in one position for a long time.
12. Answer D. If bleeding occurs after circumcision, the nurse should first apply gently pressure on the area with sterile gauze. Bleeding is not common but requires attention when it occurs.
13. Answer B. The most common assessment finding in a client with abruption placenta is a rigid or boardlike abdomen. Pain, usually reported as a sharp stabbing sensation high in the uterine fundus with the initial separation, also is common.
14. Answer B. The nurse should contact the physician immediately because the client is most likely experiencing hypotonic uterine contractions. These contractions tend to be painful but ineffective. The usual treatment is oxytocin augmentation, unless cephalopelvic disproportion exists.
15. Answer A. Providing stimulation and speaking to neonates is important. Some authorities believe that speech is the most important type of sensory stimulation for a neonate. Neonates respond best to speech with tonal variations and a high-pitched voice. A neonate can hear all sound louder than about 55 decibels.
16. Answer D. The transitional phase of labor extends from 8 to 10 cm; it is the shortest but most difficult and intense for the patient. The latent phase extends from 0 to 3 cm; it is mild in nature. The active phase extends form 4 to 7 cm; it is moderate for the patient. The expulsive phase begins immediately after the birth and ends with separation and expulsion of the placenta.
17. Answer B. Castor oil can initiate premature uterine contractions in pregnant women. It also can produce other adverse effects, but it does not promote sodium retention. Castor oils is not known to increase absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, although laxatives in general may decrease absorption if intestinal motility is increased.
18. Answer B. If bleeding and cloth are excessive, this patient may become hypovolemic. Pad count should be instituted. Although the other diagnoses are applicable to this patient, they are not the primary diagnosis.
19. Answer A. Fetal attitude—the overall degree of body flexion or extension—determines the type of molding in the head a neonate. Molding is not influence by maternal age, body frame, weight, parity, or gravidity or by maternal and paternal ethnic backgrounds.
20. Answer A. Internal EFM can be applied only after the patient’s membranes have ruptures, when the fetus is at least at the -1 station, and when the cervix is dilated at least 2 cm. although the patient may receive anesthesia, it is not required before application of an internal EFM device.
21. Answer A.During most of the first stage of labor, pain centers around the pelvic girdle. During the late part of this stage and the early part of the second stage, pain spreads to the upper legs and perineum. During the late part of the second stage and during childbirth, intense pain occurs at the perineum. Upper arm pain is not common during ant stage of labor.
22. Answer D. Women taking the minipill have a higher incidence of tubal and ectopic pregnancies, possibly because progestin slows ovum transport through the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis, female hypogonadism, and premenstrual syndrome are not associated with progestin-only oral contraceptives.
23. Answer C. A patient with pregnancy-induced hypertension complains of headache, double vision, and sudden weight gain. A urine specimen reveals proteinuria. Vaginal bleeding and uterine contractions are not associated with pregnancy-induces hypertension.
24. Answer A. The nurse should monitor fluid intake and output because prolonged oxytoxin infusion may cause severe water intoxication, leading to seizures, coma, and death. Excessive thirst results form the work of labor and limited oral fluid intake—not oxytoxin. Oxytoxin has no nephrotoxic or diuretic effects. In fact, it produces an antidiuretic effect.
25. Answer C. Common source of radiant heat loss includes cool incubator walls and windows. Low room humidity promotes evaporative heat loss. When the skin directly contacts a cooler object, such as a cold weight scale, conductive heat loss may occur. A cool room temperature may lead to convective heat loss.
26. Answer D. Bethanechol will increase GI motility, which may cause nausea, belching, vomiting, intestinal cramps, and diarrhea. Peristalsis is increased rather than decreased. With high doses of bethanechol, cardiovascular responses may include vasodilation, decreased cardiac rate, and decreased force of cardiac contraction, which may cause hypotension. Salivation or sweating may gently increase.
27. Answer D. The transitional phase, which lasts 1 to 3 hours, is the shortest but most difficult part of the first stage of labor. This phase is characterized by intense uterine contractions that occur every 1 ½ to 2 minutes and last 45 to 90 seconds. The active phase lasts 4 ½ to 6 hours; it is characterized by contractions that starts out moderately intense, grow stronger, and last about 60 seconds. The complete phase occurs during the second, not first, stage of labor. The latent phase lasts 5 to 8 hours and is marked by mild, short, irregular contractions.
28. Answer B. Measures that help relieve nipple soreness in a breast-feeding patient include lubrication the nipples with a few drops of expressed milk before feedings, applying ice compresses just before feeding, letting the nipples air dry after feedings, and avoiding the use of soap on the nipples.
29. Answer B. A pregnant woman usually can detect fetal movement (quickening) between 16 and 20 weeks’ gestation. Before 16 weeks, the fetus is not developed enough for the woman to detect movement. After 20 weeks, the fetus continues to gain weight steadily, the lungs start to produce surfactant, the brain is grossly formed, and myelination of the spinal cord begins.
30. Answer A. Lochia should never contain large clots, tissue fragments, or membranes. A foul odor may signal infection, as may absence of lochia.