1.Answer A is correct. Rapid continuous rewarming of a frostbite primarily lessens cellular damage. It does not prevent formation of blisters. It does promote movement, but this is not the primary reason for rapid rewarming. It might increase pain for a short period of time as the feeling comes back into the extremity; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
2.Answer D is correct. Hemodialysis works by using a dialyzing membrane to filter waste that has accumulated in the blood. It does not pass water through a dialyzing membrane nor does it eliminate plasma proteins or lower the pH, so answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
3.Answer B is correct. The client who is immune-suppressed and is exposed to measles should be treated with medications to boost his immunity to the virus. An antibiotic or antiviral will not protect the client and it is too late to place the client in isolation, so answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
4.Answer D is correct. The client with MRSA should be placed in isolation. Gloves, a gown, and a mask should be used when caring for the client and hand washing is very important. The door should remain closed, but a negative-pressure room is not necessary, so answers A and B are incorrect. MRSA is spread by contact with blood or body fluid or by touching the skin of the client. It is cultured from the nasal passages of the client, so the client should be instructed to cover his nose and mouth when he sneezes or coughs. It is not necessary for the client to wear the mask at all times; the nurse should wear the mask, so answer C is incorrect.
5.Answer B is correct. Pain related to phantom limb syndrome is due to peripheral nervous system interruption. Answer A is incorrect because phantom limb pain can last several months or indefinitely. Answer C is incorrect because it is not psychological. It is also not due to infections, as stated in answer D.
6.Answer A is correct. During a Whipple procedure the head of the pancreas, which is a part of the stomach, the jejunum, and a portion of the stomach are removed and reanastomosed. Answer B is incorrect because the proximal third of the small intestine is not removed. The entire stomach is not removed, as in answer C, and in answer D, the esophagus is not removed.
7.Answer C is correct. Pepper is not processed and contains bacteria. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because fruits should be cooked or washed and peeled, and salt and ketchup are allowed.
8.Answer A is correct. Coumadin is an anticoagulant. One of the tests for bleeding time is a Protime. This test should be done monthly. Eating more fruits and vegetables is not necessary, and dark-green vegetables contain vitamin K, which increases clotting, so answer B is incorrect. Drinking more liquids and avoiding crowds is not necessary, so answers C and D are incorrect.
9.Answer A is correct. The client who is having a central venous catheter removed should be told to hold his breath and bear down. This prevents air from entering the line. Answers B, C, and D will not facilitate removal.
10.Answer B is correct. Clients with a history of streptococcal infections could have antibodies that render the streptokinase ineffective. There is no reason to assess the client for allergies to pineapples or bananas, there is no correlation to the use of phenytoin and streptokinase, and a history of alcohol abuse is also not a factor in the order for streptokinase; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
11.Answer B is correct. The client who is immune-suppressed and has bone marrow suppression should be taught not to floss his teeth because platelets are decreased. Using oils and cream-based soaps is allowed, as is eating salt and using an electric razor; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
12.Answer A is correct. The best method and safest way to change the ties of a tracheotomy is to apply the new ones before removing the old ones. Having a helper is good, but the helper might not prevent the client from coughing out the tracheotomy. Answer C is not the best way to prevent the client from coughing out the tracheotomy. Asking the doctor to suture the tracheotomy in place is not appropriate.
13.Answer D is correct. The output of 300mL is indicative of hemorrhage and should be reported immediately. Answer A does nothing to help the client. Milking the tube is done only with an order and will not help in this situation, and slowing the intravenous infusion is not correct; thus, answers B and C are incorrect.
14.Answer A is correct. The infant with tetrology of falot has five heart defects. He will be treated with digoxin to slow and strengthen the heart. Epinephrine, aminophyline, and atropine will speed the heart rate and are not used in this client; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
15.The correct answer is marked by an X in the diagram. The Tail of Spence is located in the upper outer quadrant of the breast.
16.Answer A is correct. The toddler with a ventricular septal defect will tire easily. He will not grow normally but will not need more calories. He will be susceptible to bacterial infection, but he will be no more susceptible to viral infections than other children. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
17.Answer B is correct. A nonstress test determines periodic movement of the fetus. It does not determine lung maturity, show contractions, or measure neurological well-being, making answers A, C, and D incorrect.
18.Answer C is correct. The monitor indicates variable decelerations caused by cord compression. If Pitocin is infusing, the nurse should turn off the Pitocin. Instructing the client to push is incorrect because pushing could increase the decelerations and because the client is 8cm dilated, making answer A incorrect. Performing a vaginal exam should be done after turning off the Pitocin, and placing the client in a semi-Fowler’s position is not appropriate for this situation; therefore, answers B and D are incorrect.
19.Answer C is correct. The graph indicates ventricular tachycardia. The answers in A, B, and D are not noted on the ECG strip.
20.Answer B is correct. Lovenox injections should be given in the abdomen, not in the deltoid muscle. The client should not aspirate after the injection or clear the air from the syringe before injection. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
21.Answer B is correct. Valium is not given in the same syringe with other medications, so answer A is incorrect. These medications can be given to the same client, so answer D is incorrect. In answer C, it is not necessary to wait to inject the second medication. Valium is an antianxiety medication, and Phenergan is used as an antiemetic.
22.Answer B is correct. Voiding every 3 hours prevents stagnant urine from collecting in the bladder, where bacteria can grow. Douching is not recommended and obtaining a urinalysis monthly is not necessary, making answers A and C incorrect. The client should practice wiping from front to back after voiding and bowel movements, so answer D is incorrect.
23.Answer C is correct. Of these clients, the one who should be assigned to the care of the nursing assistant is the client with dementia. Only an RN or the physician can place the client in seclusion, so answer A is incorrect. The nurse should empty the Foley catheter of the preeclamptic client because the client is unstable, making answer B incorrect. A nurse or physical therapist should ambulate the client with a fractured hip, so answer D is incorrect.
24.Answer A is correct. The client who has recently had a thyroidectomy is at risk for tracheal edema. A padded tongue blade is used for seizures and not for the client with tracheal edema, so answer B is incorrect. If the client experiences tracheal edema, the endotracheal tube or airway will not correct the problem, so answers C and D are incorrect.
25.Answer D is correct. Histoplasmosis is a fungus carried by birds. It is not transmitted to humans by cats, dogs, or turtles. Therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.